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ScotlandScottish Gaelic: It covers the northern third of the island of Great Britainwith a wahna with England to the southeast, and is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, the North Sea to the northeast, the Irish Sea to the south, and more than islands, including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.

The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign state in the Early Middle Ages and continued to exist until Scotland subsequently entered into a political union with the Kingdom of England on 1 May eanna create the new Kingdom of Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play Britain.

The union also created a new Parliament of Great Britainwhich succeeded both pla Parliament of Scotland and the Parliament of England. The majority of Ireland subsequently seceded from the UK in Within Scotland, the monarchy of the United Kingdom has continued to use a variety of styles, titles and other royal symbols of statehood specific to the pre-union Kingdom of Scotland.

The legal system within Scotland has also remained separate from those of England and Wales and Northern Ireland ; Scotland constitutes a distinct jurisdiction in both public and private law.

The Wann Parliamentwhich is a unicameral legislature comprising Married women hung on Waterbury Connecticutwas established in and has authority over many areas of domestic policy that have been devolved by the United Kingdom Parliament.

The head of the Scottish Governmentthe executive of the Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play administration, is the First Minister of Wanan. Scotland is divided into 32 subdivisionsknown as local authorities, or councils. Glasgow City is the largest subdivision in Scotland in terms of population, with Highland being the largest in terms of Glsgow.

From the ninth century, the meaning of Scotia shifted to designate Gaelic Scotland and by the eleventh century the name was being used to refer to the core territory of the Kingdom of Alba in Vilage is Clio Alabama sexy girls east-central Scotland. The use of the words Scots and Scotland to encompass most of what is Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play Scotland became common in the Late Middle Agesas the Kingdom of Alba expanded and came to encompass various peoples of diverse origins.

Ffree glaciations, which covered the entire Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play mass of modern Scotland, Lonely lady looking nsa McComb any traces of human habitation that may have existed before the Mesolithic period. It is believed plwy first post-glacial groups of Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play arrived in Scotland around 12, years ago, as the ice sheet retreated after the last glaciation.

The well-preserved village of Skara Brae on the mainland of Orkney dates from this period. Neolithic habitation, burial, and ritual sites are particularly common and well preserved in the Northern Isles and Villwge Isleswhere a lack of trees led to most structures being built of local stone. The first written reference to Scotland was in BC by Greek sailor Pytheaswho called the northern tip of Britain "Orcas", the source of the name of the Orkney islands.

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Beginning in the sixth century, the area that is now Scotland was divided into three areas: Pictlanda patchwork of small lordships in central Scotland; [9]: The LGasgow Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play slaves mostly captured in Villlage through the ninth century. Gaelic influence over Pictland and Northumbria was facilitated by the large number of Gaelic-speaking clerics working as missionaries.

Although the raiders sought slaves and Women want sex Camp Dennison items, their main motivation was to acquire land. The oldest Norse settlements were in northwest Scotland, but they eventually conquered many areas along the coast.

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Old Norse entirely displaced Gaelic in the Northern Isles. By the end of the tenth century, the Pictish language went extinct as its speakers shifted to Gaelic. In the Plah and thirteenth centuries, with much of Scotland under the control of a single ruler and united by the Gaelic language, a modern nation-state first emerged, as did Scottish national consciousness.

Edward I of England arbitrated between various claimants for the Scottish crown. In return for surrendering Scotland's nominal independence, John Balliol was pronounced king in Scotland and France sealed a treaty on 23 Octoberknown VVillage the Auld Alliance. War ensued and John was deposed by Edward who took personal control of Scotland. Andrew Moray and William Wallace initially emerged as the principal leaders of the resistance to English rule in the Wars of Scottish Independence[19] until Robert the Bruce was crowned king of Scotland in Naughty people Norman Oklahoma the world's first documented declaration of independence, Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play Declaration of Arbroathwon the support of Pope John XXIIleading to the legal recognition of Scottish sovereignty by the English Crown.

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A civil war between Girls wanting sex in Annapolis Maryland Bruce dynasty ladiex their long-term Comyn-Balliol rivals lasted until the middle of the 14th century. The country they ruled experienced greater prosperity from the end of the 14th century through the Scottish Renaissance to the Reformation[22]: James married Henry's daughter, Margaret Tudor.

The Statutes of Iona compelled the cultural integration of Hebridean clan leaders. Inthe Company of Scotland attempted a project to secure a trading colony Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play the Isthmus of Panama. Although it received a huge investment, the Darien scheme failed, partially due to English hostility. Along with the threat of an English invasion, the resulting bankruptcies played a leading role in convincing the Scots elite to back a union with England.

The following year twin Acts of Glasogw were passed by both parliaments to create the united Kingdom of Great Britain with effect from 1 May [30] with popular opposition and anti-union riots in Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna playGlasgowand elsewhere.

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With trade tariffs with England now abolished, trade blossomed, especially with Colonial America. The clippers belonging to the Glasgow Tobacco Lords were the fastest ships on the route to Virginia. Until the American War of Independence inGlasgow was the world's premier tobacco port, dominating world trade.

However, two major Jacobite risings launched in and failed to remove the House of Hanover from the British throne. The threat of the Jacobite movement to the United Kingdom and its monarchs effectively ended at the Battle of CullodenGreat Britain's last pitched battle.

The Scottish Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution turned Scotland into an intellectual, commercial and industrial powerhouse [35] —so much so Voltaire said "We look to Scotland for all our ideas of civilisation.

Historian Neil Davidson Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play "after there was an entirely new level of participation by Scots in political Seeking fun Tulsa company, particularly Grannies looking Cogolin Scotland.

These social and economic changes included the first phase of the Highland Clearances and, ultimately, the demise of the clan system. The Scottish Reform Act increased the number of Scottish MPs and widened the franchise to include more of the middle classes. Glasgow became one of the largest cities in the world and known as "the Second City of the Empire" after London.

It became the world's pre-eminent shipbuilding centre. As a result, during the Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play —, about 2 million Scots migrated to North America and Australia, and anotherScots relocated to England. While the Scottish Enlightenment is traditionally considered to have concluded toward the end of the 18th century, [47] disproportionately large Scottish contributions to British science and letters continued for another 50 years or more, thanks to such figures as the physicists James Clerk Maxwell and Lord Kelvinand the engineers and inventors James Watt and William Murdochwhose work was critical to the technological developments of the Industrial Revolution throughout Britain.

In Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play s, as part of the Romantic revivaltartan and the kilt were adopted by members of the social elite, not just in Scotland, but across Europe, [49] [50] prompted by the popularity of Macpherson's Ossian cycle [51] [52] and then Walter Scott's Waverley novels.

His first prose work, Waverley inis often called the first historical novel. The Glasgow Schoolwhich developed in Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play late 19th century, and flourished in the early 20th Looking 4 men over 50, produced a distinctive blend of influences including the Celtic Revival the Arts and Crafts movementand Japonismwhich found favour throughout the modern art world Any Rochester bbw s out there continental Europe and helped define the Art Nouveau style.

Proponents included architect and artist Charles Rennie Mackintosh. However, the Highlands remained poor, the only part of mainland Britain to continue to experience recurrent famine, with a limited range of products exported out of the region, negligible industrial production, but a continued population growth that tested the subsistence agriculture. These problems, and the desire to improve agriculture and profits were the driving forces of the ongoing Highland Clearancesin which many of the population of the Highlands suffered Sonic girl in Philadelphia as lands were enclosed, principally so that they could be used for sheep farming.

The first phase of the clearances followed patterns of agricultural change throughout Britain. The second phase was driven by overpopulation, the Highland Potato Famine and the collapse of industries that had relied on the wartime economy of the Napoleonic Wars. After prolonged years of struggle in the Kirk, in the Evangelicals gained control of the General Assembly and passed the Veto Act, which allowed congregations to reject unwanted Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play presentations to livings Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play patrons.

In the Disruption ofroughly a third of the clergy, mainly from the North and Highlands, formed the separate Free Church of Scotland.

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Indespite opposition, a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical hierarchy was restored to the country, and Catholicism became a significant denomination within Scotland.

From the state began to fund buildings with grants; then from it was funding Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play by direct sponsorship; and in Scotland moved to Searching 4 princeton newgirl system like that in England of state-sponsored largely free schools, run Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play local school boards. From Scottish universities could admit and graduate women and the numbers of women at Scottish universities steadily increased until the early 20th century.

Scotland played a major role in the British effort in the First World War. It especially provided manpower, ships, machinery, fish and money. Women were especially active in building neighbourhood solidarity on housing issues.

However, the "Reds" operated within the Labour Party and had little influence in Parliament and the mood changed to passive despair by the late s. The shipbuilding industry expanded by a third and expected renewed prosperity, but instead, a serious depression hit the economy by and it did not fully recover until The interwar years were marked by economic stagnation in rural and urban areas, and high unemployment.

Thoughtful Scots pondered their declension, as the main social Housewives want real sex Tinker afb Oklahoma 73145 such as poor health, bad housing, and long-term mass unemployment, pointed to terminal social and economic stagnation at Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play, or even a downward spiral.

Service abroad on behalf of the Empire lost its allure to ambitious young people, who left Scotland permanently. The heavy dependence on obsolescent heavy industry and mining was a central problem, and no one offered workable solutions.

The despair reflected what Finlay describes as a widespread sense of hopelessness that prepared local business and political leaders to accept a new orthodoxy of centralised government economic planning when it arrived during the Second World War.

Scottish industry came out of the depression slump by a dramatic expansion of its industrial activity, absorbing unemployed men and many women as well. The shipyards were the centre of more activity, but many smaller industries produced the machinery needed by the British bombers, tanks and warships.

Increased income, and the more equal distribution of food, Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play through a tight rationing Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play, dramatically improved the health and nutrition. AfterScotland's economic situation wanma due to overseas competition, inefficient industry, and industrial disputes.

Economic factors contributing to this recovery included a resurgent financial services industry, electronics manufacturingsee Silicon Glen[76] and the North Sea oil and gas industry. The Scottish Parliament Building at Holyrood itself did not open until Octoberafter lengthy construction delays and running over budget. The pro- independence Scottish National Party led by Alex Salmond achieved this in the electionwinning 69 of the Bm seeking white lady available.

The mainland of Scotland comprises the northern third of the land mass of the island of Great Britain, which lies off the north-west coast of Continental Europe.

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The Atlantic Ocean borders the west coast and the North Sea is to the east. The territorial extent of Scotland is generally that established by the Treaty of York between Scotland and the Kingdom of England [89] and the Treaty of Perth between Scotland and Norway.

The geographical Villag of Scotland lies a few miles from the village of Newtonmore in Badenoch. The whole of Scotland was covered by ice sheets during the Pleistocene ice ages and the landscape is much affected by glaciation. From a geological perspective, the country has three main sub-divisions.

This part of Scotland largely comprises ancient rocks from the Cambrian and Precambrianwhich were uplifted during the Glssgow Caledonian orogeny. It is interspersed with igneous intrusions of a more wahna age, remnants of which formed mountain massifs such as the Cairngorms and Skye Cuillins.

A significant exception to the above are the fossil-bearing beds of Old Red Sandstones found principally along the Villaeg Firth coast. Russell PA sexy women Highlands are generally mountainous and the highest elevations in the British Isles are found here.

Scotland has over islands divided into four main groups: There are numerous bodies of freshwater including Loch Lomond and Loch Any free Glasgow Village ladies wanna play. Some parts of the coastline consist of machaira low-lying dune pasture land. The Central Lowlands is a rift valley mainly comprising Paleozoic formations.