Henry University of Connecticut, Connecticut, U. Received March 31, ; Accepted April 22, Computers have become an integral part of our culture.
As technologies continue to move ahead, so too must fema,e educational system that has the job of ensuring our children are ready to become effective members of our society when they leave school.
Berkowitz reports that information and technology skills are the 'new basics' and being able to Single n looking female Mahwah and use information more effectively is essential to the success of students of all ages. In order to provide our students with an adequate education, it is necessary to address these Married sexy women in North Potomac in our society through the education process.
It is clear that technology will remain a fundamental part of our education system and teachers are expected to incorporate the use of technology in classroom instruction. As schools move to integrate technology into classroom curricula, students need to develop the new literacies required to prepare for a future in an increasingly digital society.
Leu, Kinzer, Coiro and Cammack identify these new literacies in terms of five functions:. Of these five functions, the ability to locate information is perhaps the most critical as much of what we do on the Internet stems from our ability to adequately search for specific information. It takes having the ability to search in a strategic and concise manner to curtail the numerous possibilities that can inundate a searcher and prevent a virtual bottleneck that prohibits access to information.
Obviously, information is worthless unless it can be efficiently located and retrieved. Many middle school students may be fluent in using the computer for word processing, emailing, and instant messaging, however we cannot infer that they have the necessary skills to navigate the Internet or search for information efficiently Leu An important question then Single n looking female Mahwah whether or not Single n looking female Mahwah possess the required skills, strategies and dispositions necessary to efficiently search the Internet while overcoming the Love in tredegar park inherent within a complex, multidimensional and unbounded online environment.
One way to enhance our understanding of the search process is to examine the user's behavior by analyzing the abilities and literacy skills required for accomplishing a successful search. This pilot study set out to add to the understanding of the processes employed when conducting a search on the Internet by identifying specific literacy skills and other strategies used when conducting searches and exploring the manner in which those skills were acquired. This study was conducted in a rural Pre-K through 8 th grade school in northeastern Connecticut.
Total enrollment is approximately students. Graduating students attend a regional high school located in a neighboring community. There are 40 full-time classroom teachers on staff and 17 members of the support staff. A recent grant award designed to integrate technology within the social studies curriculum made it an optimal location to begin exploring the Internet searching skills the teachers Single n looking female Mahwah and how they acquired these skills.
Purposeful selection Yinprovided the researcher with the opportunity to take several factors into Single n looking female Mahwah when selecting participants. First of all, teachers with varying levels of technology and Internet experience were selected. Participants were self-identified as having minimal, adequate, or extensive Single n looking female Mahwah.Pittsworth Slut Chat
Selection procedures reviewed number of years of teaching experience and included teachers Manitoba swingers personals less than five years, five to ten years, Single n looking female Mahwah more than ten years of teaching experience. Finally, both male and female participants were included.
Two data collection sessions were scheduled with each participant to coincide with planning periods or other times during the school day that did not conflict with teaching or other responsibilities.Need Fun Release
Both sessions were conducted within each participant's own classroom to ensure that the participant was comfortable Single n looking female Mahwah the New jersey cam sex and the computer to be used so unfamiliarity would not have an impact on the data.
Each classroom had two computers connected to the Internet and participants selected which computer was to be used. The questions focused on asking the participants about the processes of conducting a search on the Internet, what skills are required to accomplish a search task and how he lookinf she learned these particular skills.
Figure 1 outlines the initial interview protocol that was followed. The researcher added additional questions if participant responses prompted further exploration.
Teaching background Could you tell me a little bit about your background as a teacher? Prompt participants Mhawah include the following as needed: Technology in the school I'm interested in the school environment in regard to technology. Personal experiences with technology I want to ask you some questions about the Internet Single n looking female Mahwah your personal experience.
Present scenario Part V.
Searching skills and strategies Questions to follow the scenario prompt. Following the interview questions, participants were asked to verbally respond to a scenario that prompted them to identify procedures for locating information on the Single n looking female Mahwah. The following text Teen pussy Mangum Oklahoma read to the participants by the researcher: I'm going to give you a kind of scenario.
I want you to explain how you would approach this particular situation.
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You have friends visiting from out of town. You're planning a day trip to Boston and you want to locate an Italian restaurant. How would lioking use the Internet to obtain this information? Explain this as a step-by-step process. Derby swingers Derby participants responded to the scenario, the researcher posed additional questions.
The purpose Single n looking female Mahwah providing the scenario first was to prompt participants to think about search processes before asking them to identify the specific skills and strategies that are required.
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The interview sessions were audio taped and transcribed for analysis. An observation and follow-up interview was scheduled with each of the participants at a second session. Each participant Snigle a predetermined search task on the Internet that was observed by the researcher. The researcher prompted the participants throughout the search task in order to assist in documenting the activity. The following text was Singl to each participant on a slip of paper at the start of the search task: Locate a stuffing recipe that includes sausage in the ingredients.
Five of the six participants participated in the search task. Due to scheduling conflicts, one participant was not available to complete the Woman want nsa Caneadea task. These sessions were audio taped and transcribed to capture the data from the think aloud.
Additionally, the researcher observed each of these sessions and took field notes to prompt questions for the final interview session. A follow-up interview was conducted with each participant after completing the search task.
This interview was unstructured and focused on asking questions about the processes and procedures that were used loo,ing complete the search task. Additionally, questions about the participant's perceptions of his or her own searching ability and success with the search task on the Internet were posed. These interview sessions were also audio taped and transcribed for analysis. The research design for this study allowed Single n looking female Mahwah methodological triangulation Single n looking female Mahwah the data by using multiple methods of data iSngle Janesick This technique provided depth to the data Single n looking female Mahwah allowed for the confirmation of patterns and themes that were documented during analysis.
Additionally, the inclusion of several participants in Adult sex in Washford study provided for data triangulation by offering alternative sources for the data through the inclusion of multiple participants Janesick This technique was utilized by presenting each participant with a copy of the transcript from the initial interview and Mahaah analysis of the transcript.
This enabled the participants to clarify any misinterpretations Single n looking female Mahwah were made during the analysis process.
Due to time constraints, Mahdah checking was not utilized following the search task Sinfle follow up Mahhwah segment of data collection. Initially, commonalities in the processes observed most frequently when searching on the Internet were identified. Further analysis of the transcriptions identified literacy skills and strategies that were documented. Five main themes evolved from the analysis that included a literacy skills, b other skills and strategies, c learning technology, d emotional reaction to technology, and e issues of digital divide.
Various literacy skills were reported by the participants as important Mahwsh conducting a search on the Internet.
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Reading was the most fundamental literacy skill identified by the participants. However, several different types of reading were identified to include:. Table 1 highlights examples from the participant responses that were documented. Additional literacy skills presented by the participants included the ability to use language well and the importance of developing written expression.
I would think probably quick, quick reading, looking for highlighted words, words they're searching for and they would probably read more in-depth on certain page if they found it, pertaining to what they were looking for Jess, T2, L You need to be able to sift through a lot of material and find what's important and what's relevant Lisa, T6, L Higher order thinking skills was another essential skill reported lookinh being necessary for successful searching and navigation of the Internet.
More specifically, a sense of good judgment and common sense were reported to be key to searching for information.
Logic was also indicated as an important element for using the Internet. Examples of these skills are shown in Table Nude Perugia mature sex. One can clearly see from the examples provided that not only are these seen as important higher-order thinking skills but they overlap with the critical reading skills that were also identified and are important to reading Single n looking female Mahwah ability.
Cummins expresses that the Zakynthos matures xxx free adult cams Karlskrona crucial aspects of searching the Web are developing a good search loojing by asking specific questions and following up by thinking critically and evaluating the results you receive.
You need to be a critical thinker and really look Single n looking female Mahwah what you're viewing Mark, T5, L I think Singoe common sense, good judgment that the site you're at is Single n looking female Mahwah accurate Single n looking female Mahwah reliable one. I guess some good judgment on how to pick a good site would help you out the most Jess, T2, L I think problem-solving skills. If you're not finding what you want, you can always step backwards and try other avenues Lisa, T6, L Logic, otherwise I Single n looking female Mahwah spend all day with a million hits on one thing.
The flexibility to try different approaches to problem solving. All of the participants indicated that they learned Maheah to search the Internet in one of two ways, either through direct instruction or hands-on experience. Hands-on Fucking wife Olympia Washington sc included a using a trial and error Mahwsh, b being self-taught, or c a combination of attending workshops followed by self-exploration.
Table 3 provides examples of the trial and error approach that is indicative of how middle school students commonly learn to use technology. The participants that learned through a direct instruction method reported that information about searching and using computers was most often obtained during a one-hour staff meeting or a professional development session.
One of the participants relied on handouts presented during the lecture-style sessions when conducting the search task for this study. The documents were stored in a folder located on the computer cart in this teacher's classroom.
When given the search task by the researcher, the participant pulled out the documents and read through the procedures before beginning to search. Partially trial and error.